Volcanic Springs

Geysers, Hot Springs,
Mud Pots, and Fumaroles

Photography of geysers and hot springs

Pictures of hydrothermal features require the best compromise between many influencing factors such as available light, accessibility, perspective, view angle, background and sky structure, steam clouding, reflections, and interference by humans or unwanted objects like fences, boardwalks, pipes, cisterns etc. And as if that is not challenging enough, you may want to catch the perfect moment an eruption starts or peaks. So getting good shots often is a question of luck in combination with a nose for the perfect moment (admidst sulfur stench!) and lots of patience. On the other hand, besides spectacular eruptions and stunning colors, the challenge is exactly what makes photography of thermal features so fascinating.

In contrast to many other situations in landscape photography, direct sunlight about noon supplies the best conditions for taking photos of clearwater hot springs. This supports the bright colors of pure water, mats of thermophilic bacteria, and sinter rims best. If you haver ever wondered, why colors of thermophiles sometimes are coming out brilliant and shiny, but at other times rather dull, then the answer is, activation by sunlight. In fact, it needs several days if not weeks of sunny weather for most bacteria to develop their brightest colors.

Light of the early morning or late afternoon, usually very appreciated to enhance atmosphere, is not the best choice for catching the unique characteristic of a hot spring. By fading blue and green colors and enhancing red, orange, and brown it distorts the color pattern of the motif. Sunrise or sunset may extinguish inherent colors even completely. On top of that, the chance of annoying reflections on water surfaces is rising considerably with a low altitude of the sun.

Great Fountain Geyser Yellowstone
Great Fountain Geyser at sunset

The appearance of muddy hot springs, mud pots, mineral deposits, and soil around springs or fumaroles on the other hand benefits from a clouded sky's diffuse light. Additionally, the colors of soil and rocks are also significantly enhanced by humidity.

Konungshver Hot Spring Haukadalur Iceland
The influence of light and weather on the appearance of springs is huge as shown by example of Konungshver (roll mouse over photo)

Steam may also be a limiting factor for photographic success. The amount of steam does not only depend on ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity, and wind, but also on the current temperature of the hydrothermal feature. Springs, spring clusters, and whole thermal areas are heating up and cooling down on individual cycles. So you may find on the same location excellent low steam conditions at one time and days or weeks later massive interferences though light and ambient conditions are nearly the same. The good news is that spouting springs usually become more active with rising water temperatures.

Litli Geysir Geyser Hot Spring Haukadalur Iceland
Litli Geysir, different steam emission at nearly the same air temperature and humidity (roll mouse over photo)

Reflections often hinder the view through the water surface of a spring and diminish the colors. They can be suppressed by using a polarising filter in front of the camera lens.

Diminishing of reflections with help of a polarising filter (roll mouse over photo)

Finishing touches are made with the help of photo editing software, which allows to emphasize the essential elements. I always take pictures in RAW format to maintain the maximal degrees of freedom in processing the image.

Picture of Bræðrahver before and after processing (roll mouse over photo)

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