Volcanic Springs

Geysers, Hot Springs,
Mud Pots, and Fumaroles

Norris Back Basin

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Together, Norris Back Basin and Porcelain Basin are part of the same hydrothermal system, a separation is given only by name and by present-day routing of trails. With a length of about 2.7 km (1.7 mile) the Norris Back Basin loop walk includes dirt trails, boardwalks, and wooden stairs and starts at Emerald Spring. This exceptionally beautiful pool normally is bubbling just a little bit by gas emissions.

Emerald Spring:

Emerald Spring Yellowstone

Emerald Spring Yellowstone
During the so-called "disturbance" of Norris Geyser Basin, often in late summer, Emerald Spring may change its appearance dramatically. From a nearly quiet, green spring sometime it turns into a murky-brown state, another time it heats up, becomes deep blue and boils or shows geyser activity. Obviously, the color shift to blue is caused by the temporary vanishing of the spring's yellow sulfur lining, as can be seen on the photo below.

Emerald Spring erupting during a disturbance on August 13th, 2017:

Emerald Spring Yellowstone

Emerald Spring Yellowstone
On its way to Steamboat Geyser the boardwalk traverses a bare slope, where far on the left side some small, steaming depressions become visible. The collection of small springs and steam vents is called Dr. Allen's Paint Pots. They are named after geyser researcher Dr. Eugene Thomas Allen, who published the book Hot Springs of the Yellowstone National Park together with joint researcher Dr. Arthur Lewis Day in 1935.

Dr. Allen's Paint Pots:

Dr. Allen's Paint Pots Yellowstone

Dr. Allen's Paint Pots Yellowstone
Due to the distance from the boardwalk and the unfavorable viewing angle, the content inside the craters is out of sight, but sometimes small-scale bursts can be spotted.

Spouter in southern section of Dr. Allen's Paint Pots on August 13th, 2017:

Dr. Allen's Paint Pots Yellowstone

Dr. Allen's Paint Pots Yellowstone
Steamboat Geyser, more than 200 m (250 yards) south of Emerald Spring, greets the visitor with water jets from an exceptionally colorful, but also quite complexly structured crater. Its two vents are out of sight behind geyserite mounds, so only the top of the eruptions (they are almost always tall enough) can be seen.

Steamboat Geyser, north vent on left side:

Steamboat Geyser Yellowstone

Steamboat Geyser Yellowstone
Steamboat Geyser is famous for beeing the world's largest active geyser. Major eruptions, rising from the north vent, may reach up to 115 m (380 feet), but do occur only once or twice a year, with breaks spanning many years. In contrast, minor eruptions are frequent, reaching 25 m (75 feet) or more.

Steamboat Geyser, minor eruption:

Steamboat Geyser Yellowstone

Steamboat Geyser Yellowstone
Deep drains of nearby Cistern Spring after major eruptions of Steamboat indicate a subterranean connection between both features, even if the distance is approximately 100 m (330 feet). Usually, the slightly acidic Cistern Spring exhibits a temperature around 78 °C (172 °F) and a greenish overall color, composed of blue water and a yellow sulfur lining on the spring's bottom.

Cistern Spring:

Cistern Spring Yellowstone

Cistern Spring Yellowstone
As with Emerald Spring, also Cistern Spring may get into a higher activated state during the time of a disturbance. A rise in temperature becomes evident by a shift from green to blue color inside the bowl, increased overflow leads to pastel-colored runoff areas.

Cistern Spring during a disturbance on August 13th, 2017:

Cistern Spring Yellowstone

Cistern Spring Yellowstone
Next stop is Echinus Geyser. Just before reaching Echinus, two small features, Black Pit and Sulphur Pot, flank the boardwalk on opposite sides.

Black Pit:

Black Pit Yellowstone

Black Pit Yellowstone

Sulphur Pot:

Sulphur Pot Yellowstone

Sulphur Pot Yellowstone
Between the 1970s and the 2000s Echinus Geyser used to be a frequent performer, although not always showing regular intervals. Its eruptions reached up to 25 m (75 feet). Unfortunately Echinus has fallen dormant in 2005.

Echinus Geyser:

Echinus Geyser Yellowstone

Echinus Geyser
After Echinus Geyser the boardwalk curves west to Crater Spring. Different modes of activity are known from this spring, from geyser eruptions to perpetual spouting to quiet overflowing. However, intermittent eruptions seem to be the great exception.

Crater Spring:

Crater Spring Yellowstone

Crater Spring Yellowstone
West of Crater Spring along the the edge of the wood, the quiet hot springs Root Pool, NBBNN025 and Dishwater Spring are lined up.

Root Pool:

Root Pool Yellowstone

Root Pool Yellowstone

NBBNN025:

Hot spring NBBNN025 Yellowstone

Dishwater Spring, located in right background on top of the geyserite mound:

Dishwater Spring Yellowstone

Dishwater Spring Yellowstone
Sitting on a slope between Root Pool and NBBNN025, Arch Steam Vent used to be an exceptional feature. The fumarole was bridged by a geyserite arch, which collapsed in 1968.

Arch Steam Vent:

Arch Steam Vent Yellowstone

Arch Steam Vent
Tantalus Geyser is located across the boardwalk from NBBNN025 in Tantalus Creek, traversed by the merged runoff channels of Echinus and Steamboat geysers. Eruptions of size were seen in 1969, from then on only weak splashing, if at all.

Tantalus Geyser:

Tantalus Geyser Yellowstone

Tantalus Geyser

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